Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018; 51(4): 241-246  https://doi.org/10.5090/kjtcs.2018.51.4.241
Alexander the Great’s Life-Threatening Thoracic Trauma
Efstratios Apostolakis, M.D., Ph.D.1, Nikolaos A. Papakonstantinou, M.D., M.Sc.2, Nikolaos G. Baikoussis, M.D., Ph.D.3, Georgia Apostolaki, B.Sc., M.Sc.4
1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Ioannina, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, General Hospital of Athens “Evangelismos”, 3Department of Cardiac Surgery, General Hospital of Athens Hippocratio, 4Department of English Literature, University of Athens
Corresponding author: Nikolaos A. Papakonstantinou, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, General Hospital of Athens “Evangelismos”, 12 Zilon Street, 11142, Athens, Greece
(Tel) 30-6945046726 (Fax) 30-2132041688 (E-mail) nikppk@yahoo.gr
Received: April 23, 2018; Revised: May 8, 2018; Accepted: May 8, 2018.; Published online: August 5, 2018.
© The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

cc This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Alexander the Great was a world-class leader with tremendous courage. He paid no heed to the dangers of the battlefield, so he was always in the front lines. However, his excessive courage put his life in danger. Herein, we present an analysis of the information contained in the chronicles about a very severe, life-threatening thoracic trauma that nearly killed the great stratelates. The detailed descriptions made by Arrianus allow us to conclude that Alexander the Great experienced a nearly fatal case of tension pneumothorax. Information on how he was managed is also presented.
Keywords: Pneumothorax, Penetrating thoracic trauma, Alexander the Great


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