Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2018; 51(5): 350-355  
Surgery for Pulmonary Fungal Infections Complicating Hematological Malignancies
Takashi Yamamichi, M.D., Hirotoshi Horio, Ph.D., Ayaka Asakawa, M.D., Masayuki Okui, M.D., 
Masahiko Harada, Ph.D.
Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital
Corresponding author: Takashi Yamamichi, Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
(Tel) 81-3-3823-2101 (Fax) 81-3-3823-5433 (E-mail) tak13star.winning@gmail.com
Received: June 19, 2018; Revised: July 16, 2018; Accepted: July 18, 2018.; Published online: October 5, 2018.
© The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

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Abstract
Background: The complication rate of fungal disease is higher among patients with hematological malignancies. We investigated the clinicobacteriological outcomes of resected pulmonary fungal infections complicating hematological malignancies. Methods: Between 2001 and 2017, 21 patients with pulmonary fungal infections complicating hematological malignancies underwent resection, and their clinical records and survival were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The median age of the patients was 47 years, and 13 were male. The histological diagnoses were pulmonary aspergillosis (19 cases), mucormycosis (1 case), and cryptococcosis (1 case). The indications for surgery were resistance to antifungal therapy and the necessity of surgery before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 13 and 8 cases, respectively. The diagnoses of the hematological malignancies were acute myelogenous leukemia (10 cases), acute lymphocytic leukemia (5 cases), myelodysplastic syndrome (3 cases), and chronic myelogenous leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and extramedullary plasmacytoma (1 case each). The surgical procedures were partial resection (11 cases), segmentectomy (5 cases), lobectomy (4 cases), and cavernostomy (1 case). The size of the lesions was 0.9–8.5 cm. Fourteen cases had cavitation. There were no surgical-related deaths or fungal progression. Conclusion: Pulmonary fungal infections are resistant to treatments for hematological malignancies. Since the treatment of the underlying disease is extended and these infections often recur and are exacerbated, surgery should be considered when possible.
Keywords: Mycoses; Hematologic neoplasms; Thoracic surgery


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